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Schools of Indian Philosophy – An Introduction

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The superior gift of his intellect is what differentiates a man from other forms of life.While other animals live their lives unconsciously.

It’s very sad to see the very technology which is supposed to help humans to survive & evolve a better life but today it is turning against us, making people dumb day by day by releasing cheap dopamine & serotonin flooded with information, I call it Mental Masturbation.

Living in a digital era and so call modernised society we are losing our values, cultures, ethos by copying others. We are lucky to have renowned Scholars , Philosophers, Sages who preserved & contributed to understand life with a different perceptions.

Psychology teach us β€œHow we think ?” & Philosophy teach us β€œWhy we think”, also coming from a Technical (Coding/AI/Cyber Security) background helped me to shape my rational & logical thinking in a more accurate sense, I wouldn’t recommend everyone the same.

Philosophy is the cream of a civilisation, thus understanding Indian philosophy is imperative to understanding our own identity.

Richness in Indian Philosophy

When it comes to Western philosophy, each school of philosophy goes through a cycle: Succeed in one, answer questions that the previous school could not, and gain a mass following until it reaches its own limitations and is replaced by another school of thought that dominates public discourse until it will not live out its own life cycle and another new school will not be created. And the cycle repeats itself again.

However, Indian philosophy is different as we see that each school coexisted in the same environment and subtly influenced the other. It is all more than MetaPhysics, Epistemology, Ontology, Psychology, Physics What enabled Indian philosophical schools to survive for several millennia is the fact that each school had a dedicated group of followers who adapted the practices to their own lives while attracting new followers who were influenced by them.

Although each school had an incoherent way of thinking, a follower of each school was expected to learn the view of all the others and not to draw conclusions until they thoroughly understood what the other meant.

The schools of Indian philosophy are broadly classified into two categories which again mainly classified under 6 schools –

  • Astika – Orthodox
  • Nastika – Heterodox

Six Schools –

  • Nyaya – The school of logic
  • Vaisesika – The atomist school
  • Samkhya – The enumeration school
  • Yoga – The school of patanjali
  • Mimamsa – The tradition of vedic exposition
  • Vedanta or the Upanisadic tradition

Few heterodox schools are Jainism , Buddhisim, The Materialists.

The Mimamsa **and Vedanta **are considered to be direct continuation of the Vedic culture.

All these schools consider Vedas as highest authority, It is the direct continuation of Ishwara (Atman / Brahman / God). The Vedas are being passed down orally and contains Sutras, These sutras had to be short so that it can be memorised and pass down.

As the sutras are short and written in sanskrit which is a language of sound so the english translation , commentaries of different scholars & sages making it easy for the translation.

Brahma Sutra the first systemic treatise on the Vedanta  contains aphorism that sum up teachings of the UpaniαΉ£ads.

The chief amongst which were called Bhasya. A number of scholars penned their interpretation of a sutra. For ex: BrahmaSutra alone has different Bhasya by Adi Shankaracharya, Ramanuja, MadhvaAcharaya, Vallabhacharya etc.

The vedas are tricky , One can get the different meanings & perceptions depending on the acquired knowledge & richness in life one has , Every time you read its a new book and meant different.

It is one of the oldest philosophy started around 500BC and written down later by great saints.

Even one of the greatest philosopher Nietzsche was very interested in Eastern Philosophy.

I deeply apologise to everyone, every school, and the great maharishis, to that ParamShiv If I missed out something or couldn’t put it in the way it should be. The teachings should get spread to help uplift this humanity for a better purpose. That is my sole purpose for writing and reading philosophies.

I will be writing more , Please stay tuned.